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Curriculum and Instruction
IGNOU B.Ed ES-331 Solved Assignment 2013
ES-331: CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
Answer the following questions in about 1500 words total. (i.e. each in 500 words)
Q1. Discuss the importance of curriculum evaluation. (250 words)
Answer : What is the curriculum? Curriculum is a set of planned and purposeful learning experiences, based on intended learning outcomes and organized around the developmental levels of students. It can take many forms according to the view points from Which it is approached. I will be basing my discussion on the formal curriculum without referring to the informal or hidden curriculum
Teachers should be consulted about curriculum evaluation because they are ultimately responsible for translating its objectives into specific lessons. According to the Alberta Teachers' Association, teachers are ethically and legally bound to routinely assess students and report their progress. A curriculum should help teachers do this by providing a realistic set of goals and suggested techniques to assist students at all ability levels. When decisions are made about changes in content, teachers can provide feedback based on their direct interaction with students. A teacher could use curriculum evaluation to improve his teaching. A school may use curriculum evaluation to appraise the quality of the teaching staff. Principals may use curriculum evaluation to provide information to help them make decisions (Berwick 1990). Governing agencies may use curriculum evaluation for accountability and control purposes. There is no doubt that a pupil or parent would approach curriculum evaluation differently from any of the above groups. The purposes of the evaluation would also dictate the types of evaluation used. During the early stages of curriculum development, formative evaluation helps the curriculum developer to determine the effectiveness of new procedures and identify areas where revision is needed. When the curriculum has been fully developed, summative evaluation makes it possible to determine the effectiveness in meeting the instructional objectives.
Q2.Differentiate between objectives and learning outcomes with suitable examples.(250 words)
Solution: Much confusion exists about the definition of objectives and learning outcomes. Part of the confusion results from the fact that the terms are often conflated, even in the literature. Our accrediting agencies now require and SF State policy now requires that faculty include learning outcomes on all course outlines and in their syllabi, so it’s important to understand the differences in these terms.
Objective – A course objective describes what a faculty member will cover in a course.
They are generally less broad that goals and more broad than student learning outcomes.
Examples of objectives include:
• Students will gain an understanding of the historical origins of art history.
• Student will read and analyze seminal works in 20th Century American Literature.
• Students will study the major U.S. regulatory agencies.
Student Learning Outcome – A detailed description of what a student must be able to do at the conclusion of a course. When writing outcomes, it is helpful to use verbs that are measurable or that describe an observable action. Such verbs help faculty (and
students) avoid misinterpretation. The best outcomes will include a description of the
conditions (“when given x, you will be able to…”) and the acceptable performance level
Examples of good student learning outcomes:
Government. When given a major decision made by a government leader, you will be
able to identify the major factors that the leader had to consider and discuss why the
action was taken and what apparent trade-offs were made.
Q3. Describe the activity based instruction with suitable examples from your subject.(1000 words)
Solution: Activity based instruction is ' learning by doing '.Instead of merely listening to lectures pupil will actively participate in the learning process. The teacher will only guide and encourage them to find out or learn things themselves.
For example to teach Pythagoras theorem the teacher asks the child to draw a few right angled triangles having different measures of base and altitude. then ask them to find out the measures of the diagonals in each case and find out the relationship between base ,altitude and diagonal from the figs.
They could easily find the relationship and understand the theorem.
The advantage of such method is that the learning will be more effective and it will be a child entered learning .He can learn things on his own pace too.
The disadvantages are that, this method is not applicable in all learning situations. Even in practical life also we can not have the first hand information in all our learning. Many things we have to cognize through reading and listening. And another disadvantage is that it is time consuming.
So in practical situation we should make a combination of both for making learning more effective. Activity Based Instruction has been described as a “combination of selected strategies found in early childhood and behaviour analytic approaches and shares many theoretical and philosophical underpinnings with DAP”
The purpose of this lesson is to (a) describe the elements of ABI and its potential benefit for young children who are at risk or who have disabilities, (b) review the existing literature regarding the use of ABI with young children with autism, and (c) provide resources for practitioners and family members who want to learn more about using an Activity Based Instruction approach to early intervention.
Activity Based Instruction
Inquiry Oriented Lessons
• Meets the learning style of the student
• More hands-on
• More active participation
• Emphasizes cognitive thinking skills
• Jigsaw Model where each member of the group learns a portion of the material and then teaches it to
the rest of the group.
• Full Option Science System (FOSS) model for mixed ability groups
• Cooperative learning activity involves 4 students working together and taking turns with the following
1. Reader: this student reads all print directions.
2. Recorder: this student records data, observations, predictions and estimations.
3. Getter: this student assembles all of the necessary materials.
4. Starter: this student oversees manipulations or the materials and ensures that all members have
equal opportunity at using the hands-on materials.
• Students prefer working on a project for longer periods of time rather than stopping and starting
several short lessons.
• Connects student to real world situations.
• Student able to generalize knowledge.
• Increases time on task.
• Increases creativity on the part of the teacher and the students.
• Increases teacher enthusiasm.
• Use video presentations to meet objectives of the unit.
• Assessments can reflect student work rather than the textbook's paper and pencil tests.
Class wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT)
• Practical and easy to use.
• Students learn more by doing/teaching.
• Students prefer working with other students.
• Increases time on task.
• Allows teacher to observe and help all students, not just focusing on 1 or 2 students in need.
• Promotes social and academic skills.
• Improves performance on standardized tests.
• Allows students to respond and receive immediate feedback regarding their performance.
• Increases student learning opportunities.
• The use of "Tutor and Tutee" checklists makes the students more accountable and helps the teacher monitor student performance.
Advantages of Activity Based Instruction:
1) the most important feature of activity based instruction is learning by doing. So this method of instruction can fulfil the natural urge of a growing child on one hand also can help them learn their lesson.
2) The method also promotes better understanding of a lesson among students as they learn the lesson by practicing the task themselves.
3) It inspires the students to apply their creative ideas, knowledge and minds in solving problems as well as promoting competitive spirit among them.
4) It also helps learner psychologically as they can express their emotions through active participation in something useful.
5) The method also helps in developing their personalities, social traits and inter-personal management skills.
Disadvantages of Activity Based Instruction:
1) The activity based instruction method requires long-term planning with minute details of the whole process because before engaging the learners, the teacher has to make sure that all students have sufficient knowledge and skills regarding the task they are going to perform. So this method cannot be used on a regular and daily basis as it involves a lengthy procedure.
2) The objectives of the method can only be fulfilled if the planning of the lesson is flawless. If there is slightest flaw in the planning, this method would do more harm than good.
3) Learners have varied levels of merit and understanding. So less meritorious students might not prepare for a task as other which might lead to failure of objectives of the whole process.
4) Many renowned educationists also are of the opinion that the activity based method is more suitable for branches of experimental sciences and less useful for subjects of social sciences.